HTML Uniform Resource Locators

A URL is another word for a web address.

A URL can be composed of words (e.g., or an Internet Protocol (IP) address (e.g.

Most people enter the name when surfing, because names are easier to remember than numbers.

URL – Uniform Resource Locator

Web browsers request pages from web servers by using a URL.

A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is used to address a document (or other data) on the web.

A web address like https:// follows these syntax rules:



  • scheme – defines the type of Internet service (most common is http or https)
  • prefix – defines a domain prefix (default for http is www)
  • domain – defines the Internet domain name (like
  • port – defines the port number at the host (default for http is 80)
  • path – defines a path at the server (If omitted: the root directory of the site)
  • filename – defines the name of a document or resource

Common URL Schemes

The table below lists some common schemes:

SchemeShort forUsed for
httpHyperText Transfer ProtocolCommon web pages. Not encrypted
httpsSecure HyperText Transfer ProtocolSecure web pages. Encrypted
ftpFile Transfer ProtocolDownloading or uploading files
file A file on your computer

URL Encoding

URLs can only be sent over the Internet using the ASCII character-set. If a URL contains characters outside the ASCII set, the URL has to be converted.

URL encoding converts non-ASCII characters into a format that can be transmitted over the Internet.

URL encoding replaces non-ASCII characters with a “%” followed by hexadecimal digits.

URLs cannot contain spaces. URL encoding normally replaces a space with a plus (+) sign, or %20.

ASCII Encoding Examples

Your browser will encode input, according to the character-set used in your page.

The default character-set in HTML5 is UTF-8.

CharacterFrom Windows-1252From UTF-8